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For daily, festive, ceremonial, and ritual events, African clothing, like clothes everywhere else, conveys age, gender, profession, ethnicity, power, and religious devotion.  Africans use Islamic and indigenous clothing in addition to trendy Western clothing.  Dressing include completely or partly covering the body with clothing and accessories such as head coverings and jewelry, as well as altering the body with tattoos or piercing.  For Africans, dressing properly entails correct behavior and exquisite style, which includes suitable clothing, cosmetics, and coiffure, as well as spectacular carriage, graceful movement, meticulous toilette, and spotless clothes.  Everyday African clothing expresses personal idiosyncrasy as well as socially important categories.  When Africans wear uniforms or clothes made from the same fabric, their clothing promotes group connection while minimizing individualism. 


    Only once people started to dwell in larger numbers in separate locales with well-defined social systems, refinements in art and culture, and a written language did they gain confidence in their clothing. 

    This occurred initially in Mesopotamia (home of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians) and Egypt in the ancient world. 

    The Minoans (on the island of Crete), the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Romans all lived in various regions of the Mediterranean region afterwards (on the Italian peninsula). 

    In the ancient world, the sociocultural phenomena known as "fashion," which refers to styles that are widely favored for a brief period of time, was not a component of clothing. 

    From one culture to the next, specific styles vary. 

    Some changes happened throughout time within a culture, but they were typically sluggish and required hundreds of years. 

    Tradition, not originality, was the rule in these cultures. 

    Certain similar shapes, structures, and materials may be found in the clothing of several ancient civilizations. 

    Draped vs. fitted clothing is a distinction made by costume historians. 

    Draped clothing is created by wrapping lengths of fabric over the body with little or no stitching. 

    Cut into formed parts and sewed together, a tailored outfit. 

    Draped costume makes use of long woven materials and is most popular in warm areas where a loose fit is more comfortable. 

    Tailored clothing is considered to have developed when animal skins were in use. 

    Skins had to be sewed together since they were smaller than woven cloths. 

    In cold areas, tailored clothing, which are designed to suit the body more closely, are more common since the tighter fit keeps the user warm. 

    The clothing of the ancient civilization in the Mediterranean area were draped, with a few exceptions. 

    Evidence Strengths and Weaknesses on Dress.

     The majority of evidence for ancient world clothing comes from portrayals of individuals in ancient art. 

    Because scholars may not know enough about the environment from which the things came or the conventions to which artists had to obey, this information is sometimes fragmented and difficult to decipher. 

    The amount and quality of evidence may be influenced by the geography and climate of a civilization, as well as its religious practices. 

    Fortunately, the dry desert environment of ancient Egypt, along with religious beliefs that drove Egyptians to bury a variety of objects in tombs, has resulted in real specimens of textiles, as well as certain clothes and accessories. 

    Written documents from these ancient cultures may also add to our understanding of clothing. 

    Because they utilize wording that is confusing now, such documents are frequently of little utility. 

    They may, however, reflect cultural norms, attitudes, and beliefs concerning features of clothes, such as its potential to display status or disclose particular peculiarities, that individuals hold. 

    Common Garment Types.

    Certain fundamental clothing styles occurred in a variety of ancient civilizations, however they were employed in different ways. 

    The current phrase that most nearly approximates the garment will be used to describe these clothes, which had varied names in different places. 

    Despite the fact that local customs vary, both men and women aged 10 wore the same styles of clothing. 

    These included skirts of different lengths, shawls, or lengths of woven fabric of various sizes and shapes that could be draped or wrapped around the body, and tunics, T-shaped garments made of woven fabric in varied lengths, comparable to a loose-fitting contemporary T-shirt. 

    According to E. J. W. Barber (1994), the Latin term tunica comes from the Middle Eastern word for linen, and the tunic was first worn as a linen undergarment to shield the skin from the harsh, scratchy sensation of wool. 

    Later, tunics were also used as outerwear and were created from a variety of textiles. 

    A loincloth was the basic undergarment. 

    Most ancient world societies seem to have worn this garment in some form or another. 

    It's not just seen on males, but it's also seen on women on occasion. 

    It was usually wrapped like a baby's diaper, and if the weather allowed, employees would wear it as their only out-of-door clothing. 

    The sandal was the most prevalent foot covering throughout much of the ancient world. 

    Closed shoes and protective boots are sometimes seen on riders. 

    In many ancient world civilizations, a shoe with an upward curvature of the toe is seen. 

    This form is considered to have evolved in hilly places where it gave better protection from the cold than sandals, and it initially appeared in Mesopotamia about 2600 B.C.E. 

    It was connected with monarchy in Mesopotamia, as shown by its representation on rulers. 

    It's likely that it became a status symbol in other places as well (Born). 

    The Minoans and Etruscans also had similar styles. 

    Mesopotamian Clothes

    As the first inhabitants in the area surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now modern Iraq, the Sumerians built the region's first towns. 

    They were active from about 3500 B.C.E. to 2500 B.C.E., when the Babylonians (2500 B.C.E. to 1000 B.C.E.) displaced them as the dominating civilization, and the Assyrians took over (1000 B.C.E. to 600 B.C.E.). 

    Wool, one of Mesopotamia's main goods, was utilized both locally and internationally. 

    Despite the fact that flax was accessible, it was plainly less valuable than wool. 

    The significance of sheep in terms of clothing and the economics is reflected in garment depictions. 

    Men and women are often seen in Sumerian devotional or votive figures wearing skirts that look to be constructed from sheep skin with the fleece still attached. 

    When the cloth was long enough, it was flung up and over the left shoulder, leaving the right shoulder exposed. 

    Other characters seem to be dressed in textiles with tufts of wool sewn on to resemble sheep skin. 

    Both sheepskin and woven clothing of this sort have been given the Greek name kaunakes. 

    Archaeology provides more proof of the significance of wool fabric. 

    A queen's tomb in Ur (c. 2600 B.C.E.) was discovered with shards of vivid red wool cloth considered to be from the queen's robes. 

    Dress as evidence. 

    Humans are shown on engraved seals, devotional or votive statuettes of devotees, a few wall paintings, and statues and relief carvings of military and political figures provide evidence for clothing in this region. 

    Women are seldom seen, and texts from legal and other records reinforce the notion that women's duties were limited. 

    Forms of major costumes. 

    Early Sumerian art also displays cloaks in addition to the aforementioned kaunakes garment (cape like coverings). 

    Later eras' costumes seem to have been more sophisticated, with shawls covering the whole body. 

    Also shown are skirts, loincloths, and tunics. 

    On aristocratic and mythological male figures from Sumer and Babylonia, a draped robe appears, most likely created from a square of cloth 118 inches wide and 56 inches long (Houston 2002). 

    Most academics feel that the garment's smooth appearance, devoid of folds or draperies, was an aesthetic tradition rather than a genuine depiction of clothing. 

    Men wore a close-fitting head covering with a tiny brim or cushioned roll with this outfit. 

    Women's clothing of the time covered the complete body. 

    A skirt worn with a cloak with a head opening or a tunic were the most probable options. 

    There have also been suggestions for other wrapped and draped designs. 

    The transition from Babylonian to Assyrian power is not characterized by obvious stylistic shifts. 

    Assyrians eventually preferred tunics over the skirts and capes that were more popular in previous eras. 

    The length of tunics varied depending on the wearer's gender, position, and vocation. 

    The tunics of women, as well as monarchs and high-ranking courtiers, were full-length. 

    Short tunics were worn by both civilians and military. 

    Fabrics with intricate patterns first emerged in Assyria. 

    The patterns on royal robes are either embroidered or woven, according to scholars. 

    The whole appearance was intricate and multilayered, with elaborate shawls draped over tunics. 

    On each given day, priests chose the most acceptable colors and clothing for the monarch to wear. 

    Hairstyles and headdresses are key features of attire that often express rank, vocation, or cultural references. 

    Both shaved and bearded Sumerian males are represented. 

    They might be bald at times. 

    Shaving the head may be a health precaution as well as a comfort measure in hot climes. 

    Long, curly hair is also seen on both men and women, which is most likely an ethnic trait. 

    Curling irons may have been used on Assyrian males since they are bearded and have such intricately formed curls. 

    Women's hair is shown in art as either ornately curled or simply styled at approximately shoulder length. 

    Women's standing seems to have altered throughout time. 

    Women in Sumer and Babylonia enjoyed stronger legal protection than women in Assyria, according to legislation. 

    Veiling is mentioned in law books, and it seems that free married women wore veils throughout the Sumerian and Babylonian eras, whereas slaves and concubines were only allowed to wear veils when accompanied by the chief wife. 

    Specific customs about how and when the veil was worn are unclear; nonetheless, it is obvious that Middle Eastern traditions concerning the wearing of veils by women are deeply rooted. 

    Egyptian Costume.

     Ancient Egypt's civilization arose in North Africa, near the Nile River, when two kingdoms merged during the so-called Early Dynastic Period (c. 3200–2620 B.C.E.). 

    The Old Kingdom (c. 2620–2260 B.C.E. ), the Middle Kingdom (c. 2134–1786 B.C.E. ), and the New Kingdom (c.1575–1087 B.C.E.) are the three main eras in Egyptian history. 

    Egyptian clothing remained mostly unchanged during this time period. 

    Egyptian civilization seems to have remained relatively unchanged throughout its history. 

    The kingdom was controlled by the pharaoh, a hereditary ruler. 

    The king's deputies and priests were the next rung of society, and an official class oversaw the royal court and other sectors of the realm. 

    Lower-level officials, scribes, and craftsmen, as well as servants and workers, supplied essential services, while slaves who were foreign captives were at the bottom. 

    Egypt's hot, dry environment rendered costly apparel unnecessary. 

    Clothing, on the other hand, performed a vital function in the display of status owing to society's hierarchical structure. 

    Additionally, religious beliefs contributed to the usage of garments for magical protection. 

    Dress-related evidence sources. 

    Religious ideas have given most of the evidence for this period's clothing. 

    Egyptians thought that providing genuine goods, replicas of real objects, and paintings representing everyday activities in the tomb with the dead would give the departed with the needs for a peaceful afterlife. 

    The materials contained depictions as well as genuine apparel and accessories. 

    These artifacts were preserved by the hot, dry environment. 

    Additional sources of information include temple art and surviving inscriptions and papers. 

    Textile availability and manufacture.

     Linen fiber, derived from flax plant stems, was the most common textile in Egypt. 

    Wool was deemed "unclean" and was not used by priests or for religious ceremonies, despite the fact that the Greek historian Herodotus (c. 

    490 B.C.E.) recorded seeing wool garments in use. 

    The Egyptians were exceptionally competent in linen manufacture, as shown by fabric samples that have been preserved. 

    They most likely created elaborately pleated textiles by pressing moistened materials against grooved boards. 

    After 1500 B.C.E., tapestry woven textiles appeared. 

    Beaded textiles, as well as embroidered and appliquéd fabrics, have been discovered in graves. 

    Egyptian attire was dominated by draped or wrapped clothes. 

    Lower-status males wore the most basic of clothing: a linen or leather loincloth, or a leather network over a loincloth. 

    Wrapped skirts, also known as schenti, shent, skent, or schent by costume historians, were worn by men of all classes. 

    The exact shape of these skirts varied depending on whether the fabric was pleated or plain (more often plain in the Old Kingdom, more likely pleated in the New Kingdom), whether they were longer or shorter (growing longer for high status men in the Middle Kingdom and after), and whether they were fuller (in the New Kingdom) or less full (in the Old Kingdom). 

    Over skirts, royalty and upper-class men wore extravagant jeweled belts, ornamental panels, or aprons. 

    Leopard or lion skins, short fabric capes, corselets that were either strapless or hanging from straps, and large, decorative necklaces were used to cover the upper torso. 

    The usage of animal skins has decreased throughout time. 

    Only monarchs and priests wore them as emblems of authority. 

    Cloth copies with painted leopard spots eventually replaced the real skins, and they seemed to be used only for ceremonial purposes. 

    Tunics first emerge in Egyptian clothing during the New Kingdom, either as a consequence of cross-cultural interaction with other regions of the region or as a result of the Hyksos' invasion and political rule of Egypt for a period. 

    Long wrapped robes seem to have been worn by men and women until the Middle Kingdom, when they are exclusively seen on women, gods, and kings. 

    Instead, throughout the New Kingdom, males were shown wearing long, free, flowing pleated clothes whose construction is unclear. 

    Shawls were used as an outer layer that may be wrapped or fastened. 

    Slaves and dancing girls were sometimes portrayed nude or with just a pubic band on. 

    At work, working women wore skirts. 

    Long, loose tunics, comparable to those worn by males, were worn by women, particularly those of lower social class. 

    According to Herodotus' texts, this garment was known as a kalasiris. 

    Some costume historians have misinterpreted this phrase to refer to a form-fitting garment worn by ladies of all social strata. 

    Despite the fact that this garment bears the look of a tight-fitting sheath dress, it is believed that this representation is most likely an artistic convention rather than a realistic picture. 

    More than likely, the garment was a length of cloth wrapped around the body. 

    In an exhaustive investigation of Egyptian tomb clothes, Gillian Vogelsang Eastwood (1993) discovered no instances of sheath dresses, but she did find lengths of fabric with wear patterns that are compatible with such wrapped garments. 

    Exquisite designs are often seen on sheath-like clothes. 

    Weaving, painting, appliqué, leatherwork, and feathers have all been suggested as methods for creating the designs. 

    The most plausible explanation is that beaded net gowns, which have been discovered in many graves, were worn over a wrapped dress. 

    Simple V-necked linen garments with no sleeves have been found in graves from the Old Kingdom and beyond. 

    The fabrication of a later, sleeved version was more complicated, requiring the stitching of a tube skirt to a yoke. 

    In the New Kingdom, high-status women wore long, voluminous, pleated robes, much like males. 

    A close analysis of reproductions of these gowns reveals that women utilized a different manner of draping these garments than males. 

    Wrapped shawls were worn by both men and women to give warmth and cover. 

    Egyptian jewelry was often used as the primary source of color in costumes. 

    Armlets, bracelets, and, during the New Kingdom, earrings were all part of the repertoire of ornaments available to men and women. 

    Wide jeweled collars, jeweled belts and aprons, amulets worn around the neck to ward off evil, diadems with real or jeweled flowers, armlets, bracelets, and, during the New Kingdom, earrings were all part of the repertoire of ornaments available to men and women. 

    Status was frequently communicated via headdresses and hair coverings. 

    As a consequence, artworks display a broad range of symbolic styles. 

    The king wore a crown known as the pschent, which was created by uniting the customary crowns of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. 

    The king's control over both Upper and Lower Egypt was symbolized by this crown. 

    The hemhemet crown, worn on ceremonial occasions; the blue or war crown, worn by kings and queens as a sign of royal strength; and the uraeus, a depiction of a snake worn by kings and queens as a symbol of royal might. 

    Rulers wore the nemes headdress, a scarf-like garment that was worn over the forehead, hung down to the shoulder behind the ears, and had a long tail (symbolizing a lion's tail) at the rear. 

    The falcon headgear, formed like a bird with wings falling down at the side of the face, was worn by queens or deities. 

    Men shaved their heads, as did women and children on occasion. 

    Despite the fact that males were shaved, beards were emblems of authority, and the pharaoh wore a fake beard. 

    Hatshepsut, a female pharaoh, is also shown with this artificial beard by painters. 

    The lock of Horus, or the lock of youth, was a unique hairdo worn by the pharaoh's children. 

    The head was shaved, and one lock of hair was braided and draped over the ear on the left side of the head. 

    Minoan Clothes

    The Minoans lived on the island of Crete, more to the west, while the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished in the Eastern Mediterranean. 

    This people lived on the island of Crete from from 2900 to 1150 B.C.E. and were called after a mythological ruler Minos. 

    By 2100 B.C.E., the Minoans had spread their influence to Mycenae, a major Greek city-state on the mainland. 

    Following the demise of the Minoans about 1400 B.C.E., the Mycenaeans took control of Crete and the Minoans. 

    Archaeological evidence reveals Minoan and Mycenaean clothing. 

    Scholars have deduced some information about clothes throughout these eras from wall murals and statuettes. 

    Both linen and wool were manufactured, according to archaeologists. 

    Minoan fabrics with complicated designs that needed both basic and difficult weaving procedures, embroidery, or painting are shown in wall paintings. 

    Dyestuffs were imported, according to excavations. 

    Minoan merchants introduced their fabrics to Egypt, according to Egyptian wall paintings depicting individuals clothed in Minoan ways. 

    Forms of major costumes.

     Minoan clothing resembled those of other Mediterranean civilizations while also differing significantly. 

    Leaping over the horns of bulls was a sport or religious activity that both men and women of the Minoan tribe took part in. 

    Both men and women wore loincloths strengthened at the crotch for safety in this pastime, according to wall murals. 

    Minoan males wore skirts that varied in length from thigh-length with a front tassel to longer lengths that stopped below the knee or at the ankle. 

    Minoan art also has skirts that look to be extremely similar to the Mesopotamian kaunakes garment. 

    Women wore skirts as well, although their structure differed from that of males. 

    Three separate skirt kinds have been proposed by academics. 

    All of them are full-length. 

    The first is a bell-shaped skirt that fits over the hips and flares out towards the hem. 

    Another looks to be made up of a succession of horizontal ruffles that progressively spread till they reach the ground, while a third has a line down the middle that some have interpreted as a bifurcated, culotte-like skirt. 

    Others believe the line just depicts the way the garment dropped. 

    Women typically wore an apron-like overgarment with these skirts. 

    The apron garment was used for religious rites and was a relic of a loincloth worn by men and women in earlier periods, according to Arthur Evans, an archaeologist who was one of the first to explore Cretan ruins. 

    The top ladies wore these skirts with a Minoan-only garment: a neatly fitting bodice that had to have been cut and sewed, if the art is to be believed. 

    Sleeves were stitched or otherwise affixed to the bodice in a tight fit. 

    It was laced or secured under the breasts, exposing the bosom. 

    Authorities disagree on whether or not all of the ladies exposed their breasts. 

    Some think that this design was only worn by priestesses, and that ordinary women concealed their breasts with a translucent cloth covering. 

    Both men and women wore broad, tight belts with rolled edges with skirts or loincloths. 

    They were also dressed in tu nics. 

    Men's hair was short or long, while women's hair was long. 

    The seam lines or spots where clothes would have been sewed together seem to be covered by woven patterned braid embellishments on most tunics, as well as bodices and skirts. 

    Long or short curly hair is featured on both men and women. 

    Minoan art shows a wide range of hats, some of which may have been utilized in religious rites or to denote social position. 

    Women's hair is often portrayed meticulously styled and secured in place with decorative nets or fillets (bands). 

    Greek Outfit.

    The Minoan/Mycenaean era and the Archaic Period of Greek history on the mainland are separated by a "dark age" about which nothing is known. 

    The Archaic Period (800–500 B.C.E. ), the Classical Age (500–323 B.C.E. ), and the Hellenistic Period (500–323 B.C.E.) are the three periods in Ancient Greece's history (after 323 B.C.E. to the absorption of Greece by the Romans). 

    Many examples of Greek attire may be found in Greek sculpture and vase paintings, as well as some wall paintings. 

    Scholars think they understand what was worn and how it was manufactured since some even depict people putting on or taking off garments. 

    Clothing color, on the other hand, might be an issue. 

    Most sculptures were painted with colors when they were originally created and presented. 

    Those hues have faded with the passage of time. 

    For long years, it was assumed that Greeks dressed virtually entirely white. 

    Because vase painting traditions depicted either black images on a red backdrop or red figures on a black background, most vase paintings are not reliable sources of knowledge on color. 

    Greeks wore a broad spectrum of frequently vibrant hues, as seen by the rare white background vases on which figures were painted in color and frescoes. 

    In ancient Greece, married women were in charge of the household. 

    By spinning and weaving, they were able to meet the family's textile demands. 

    Wool, which was manufactured in Greece, was one of the fibers utilized. 

    By the sixth century B.C.E., linen had made its way to Greece, most likely via Egypt to the Ionian area of Asia Minor, where some Greeks had moved, and then to the Greek peninsula. 

    Silk was obviously imported from China through Persia late in Greek history, and the Greek island of Cos was noted for its silk manufacture. 

    Imported woven silk textiles were most likely unraveled into yarns and then woven into fabrics using linen yarns. 

    As a result, less precious silk was used to create a highly attractive cloth. 

    Plants and minerals were used to create dyes. 

    Purple, which was produced from shellfish, was a particularly desired and precious hue. 

    Because of the toxic fumes created by dyeing, bleaching, and other finishing operations, they were most often done in specific facilities rather than at home. 

    Women were talented in embroidering and weaving motifs onto cloth. 

    Garments were hung and most likely woven to the exact size, so minimal cutting and stitching was necessary. 

    Because many clothing look to be pleated, technologies for pressing pleats into fabric and keeping textiles smooth and flat are probable. 

    Forms of major costumes.

     Chiton was the Greek term for a garment that was essentially equal to a tunic, and it is now known as Greek tunics by costume historians. 

    The chiton was the fundamental clothing for men, women, and children throughout Greek history in one form or another. 

    Its size, form, and attaching techniques changed throughout time. 

    Despite this, the chiton has been built in a similar fashion throughout Greek history. 

    With the fold on one side and the open edge on the other, a rectangular piece of cloth was folded in half lengthwise and wrapped around the torso beneath the arms. 

    The top of the cloth was brought up over the shoulder in the front and pinned to match the fabric in the back. 

    This was done over the opposite shoulder as well. 

    The waist of this rudimentary garment was belted. 

    It's possible that the open side was sewed, fastened, or left open. 

    Variations might be readily produced by starting with this basic outfit. 

    The fabric's top edge was often folded down to make a beautiful overfold. 

    The folded section's breadth might vary. 

    Belts may be put in a variety of places, or many belts might be employed. 

    The way the shoulder is pinned may also alter. 

    The labels given to these various styles now are not necessarily those given to them by the ancient Greeks, but have been allocated subsequently by costume historians who disagree on terminology at times. 

    The terminology used in this article seem to be the most widely recognized. 

    Chiton style garments are called as chitoniskos and Doric peplos in the Archaic Period. 

    Both were created with an overfold that reached to approximately waist length and had the same structure. 

    They seem to have been constructed from patterned wool textiles and look to be close-fitting. 

    The chitoniskos, which were usually short and terminated between the hip and the thigh, were worn by men. 

    The Doric peplos, which were identical in design and fit but reached to the floor, were worn by women. 

    A long, pointed, daggerlike ornamental pin was used to secure the Doric peplos. 

    According to Herodotus, the change from the Doric peplos to the Ionic chiton occurred when the ladies of Athens used their dress pins to stab to death a messenger who delivered them word of the Athenians' crushing loss in a war. 

    According to Herodotus, the use of huge pins was forbidden, and little fastenings were required instead. 

    The Ionic chiton did replace the Doric peplos for both men and women shortly after 550 B.C.E. 

    This narrative may be apocryphal, but it is true that the Ionic chiton did replace the Doric peplos for both men and women shortly after 550 B.C.E. 

    The Ionic chiton was composed of a thicker cloth and was pinned all the way down the length of the arm with several little fasteners. 

    Overfolds were less likely to be utilized when there was more fabric in the garment. 

    Over the chiton, various shawls or tiny rectangular garments were used instead. 

    Many of the wider Ionic chitons appear to be pleated, indicating that they were most likely made of lighter weight wool or linen. 

    By belting the cloth in various ways, numerous styles might be created. 

    The Ionic chiton progressively gave place to the Doric chiton about 400 B.C.E. 

    The Doric chiton was smaller and had a single pin at the shoulder, similar to a decorative safety pin. 

    Such pins were known as fibulae by the Romans, and this Latin term is now used to refer to any such pin dating back to antiquity. 

    This garment was more likely to have an overfold than the Ionic chiton. 

    Doric chitons may also be belted in a variety of ways and paired with the previously stated little draped garments. 

    Wool, linen, or silk seem to have been used. 

    Some academics believe that the move from the huge, ostentatious Ionic chiton to the simpler Doric chiton reflects changes in Greek society's beliefs and ideals. 

    According to A. G. Geddes (1987), emphasis was put on physical fitness (more visible in the better fitting Doric chiton), equality, and less flaunting of riches in the late fifth century B.C.E. 

    Between 300 and 100 B.C.E., the Hellenistic chiton appears. 

    It was a thinner version of the Doric chiton, belted just behind the breasts, and composed of lighter wool material, linen, or silk. 

    This chiton is the most similar in style to many of the following garment designs influenced by the Greek chiton. 

    Men's and women's fashions were generally similar, with women's clothing extending to the floor and men's being more likely to be short for everyday wear. 

    The exomis, a simple rectangle of fabric that tied over one shoulder, leaving the other arm free for easier motion, was a poor man's version of the chiton. 

    Several clothing seem to have been worn by males more often than by women. 

    A big piece of cloth wrapped around the body formed the himation. 

    The garment, which dates back to the late fifth century, may be worn alone or over a chiton. 

    It was flung over the left shoulder or carried over the left arm after covering the left shoulder, wrapping around the back and under the right arm. 

    Men wore a rectangular cloak of leather or wool called the chlamys for protection against adverse weather and when traveling. 

    It could be used as a blanket as well. 

    The petasos, a wide-brimmed hat that provided extra sun or rain protection, was often worn with this cloak. 

    The issue of whether or not married, adult Greek women were obligated to wear veils while outside is still being discussed. 

    This appears to be the case in some statues. 

    The activities of a respectable married lady were restricted; she spent most of her time at home and was barred from men's social events. 

    The women depicted in Greek art socializing with men are courtesans or entertainers, not wives. 

    Some experts think that when a lady stepped outside the house, she covered her face with a shawl or veil. 

    According to C. Galt (1931), veiling arrived in Greece from Ionia in the Middle East at the same time the Ionian chiton was established. 

    Etruscan Clothes

    The Italian peninsula was inhabited by a variety of tribes. 

    One of these tribes had inhabited a broad territory by 800 B.C.E. and had created a sophisticated culture and economy. 

    Their burial rituals, which included tomb paintings depicting everyday life, give valuable information about how they clothed. 

    They came into intimate touch with Greece, Greek art, and Greek styles as a result of trade. 

    Etruscan clothing has greater shape in the sleeves, which flare out at the ends, and a fit that fits the body more tightly in certain times. 

    A tall peaked cap called a tutulus, sandals with pointed, curved toes, and various different forms of mantles were also Etruscan attire. 

    The tebenna was a particularly unique mantle, since it seemed to be fashioned with curved edges and a semicircular form. 

    This cloak is thought to be the predecessor of the Roman toga, according to scholars. 

    Even while certain Etruscan fashions had distinct qualities, Etruscan and Greek garments have so many similarities that Etruscan versions are practically indistinguishable from Greek equivalents. 

    The Etruscans were assimilated into Rome when the Romans came to dominance in Italy, and by the first century B.C.E., they no longer existed as a distinct society. 

    Roman Dress.

    Originating in the hills near what is now Rome, the Romans eventually came to rule not just the Italian peninsula, but a broad area that included most of modern-day western Europe as well as major swaths of the Middle East and North Africa. 

    Due to Greece's dominance over most of the Mediterranean area, Greek influences pervaded much of Roman society. 

    There was no exception in terms of attire. 

    It's frequently difficult to tell the difference between Greek and Roman styles, much as it was with the Etruscans. 

    However, Roman clothing is significantly more likely than Greek clothing to feature elements that indicate the wearer's position. 

    There are several pieces of art from the Roman period, as well as literary works and inscriptions in Latin that can be read and comprehended. 

    Even still, several features of Roman clothing remain a mystery. 

    It's possible that the specific meaning of several Latin terms pertaining to clothes is unclear. 

    The synthesis, for example, is a man's garment. 

    The result was a special occasion outfit for males, which they wore to dinner parties. 

    The toga, the customary Roman man's clothing, was heavy. 

    Romans ate while reclining, and stretching out in a toga must have been problematic, therefore the synthesis was invented to solve this problem. 

    Scholars have deduced that the clothing was most likely a tunic with a shoulder wrap based on what Roman sources say about it. 

    In Roman art, however, there does not seem to be any depiction of the style. 

    In Rome, wool, linen, and silk were utilized, and cotton was introduced from India about 190 B.C.E. or earlier. 

    Cotton might be combined with wool or linen, but only the rich could afford silk. 

    Textiles were not made in the household, as they were in Greece. 

    They were instead weaved by women on big estates or by men and women in enterprises all across the empire. 

    While some clothing was manufactured at home, ready-to-wear clothes could also be found in stores. 

    The Romans termed the chiton tunica, which is where the word tunic comes from. 

    Men's tunics in Rome were worn by all strata of society and terminated about the knee. 

    Purple bands that stretched vertically across the shoulder from one hem to the other denoted rank. 

    The Emperor's and senators' tunics featured broader bands, whereas knights' tunics had smaller bands. 

    The precise location and breadth of these bands, known as clavi, varied somewhat throughout time, but from the first century C.E., all male aristocrats wore them. 

    Ordinary people and slaves lacked such emblems at the time, although they became increasingly popular subsequently. 

    The toga was to be worn over a tunic by all male residents. 

    The toga was the Roman citizenship emblem. 

    It was stretched over the shoulder, across the back, under the right arm, and dragged across the chest and over the shoulder from a semicircle of white wool. 

    It is most likely descended from the Etruscan tebenna, as previously stated. 

    Some dignitaries wore specific togas, and the size, form, and intricacies of draping changed somewhat over Rome's history. 

    Cloaks and capes, with or without hoods, were used to give protection from the elements. 

    Military uniforms often denoted the wearer's rank. 

    Ordinary troops wore the sagum, a crimson wool cloak. 

    This expression entered the language of symbols, and "putting on the sagum" came to symbolize "going to battle." Women's clothing in Rome differed only slightly from that of Hellenic-period Greek women. 

    They wore an under tunic that was not seen in public and an upper tunic that was similar to a Greek chiton. 

    A palla, which looked a lot like a Greek himation, was thrown over it. 

    These layers came in a variety of hues. 

    Different people have different ideas of what the stola with the instita was. 

    Many costume histories use the terms stola and outer tunic interchangeably. 

    Literary works, on the other hand, clearly show that the garment was solely worn by free, married women. 

    The instita is a ruffle at the bottom of the stola or outer tunic, according to certain accounts. 

    However, Judith Sebesta (1994) concludes after a thorough examination that it is a unique form of outer tunic suspended on sewed-on straps. 

    Hairstyles fluctuate dramatically from one era to the next. 

    Under the Republic, men are typically bearded, while during the Empire, men are clean-shaven until the reign of Emperor Hadrian, who grew a beard. 

    Each family had a celebration to commemorate a young boy's first shave, in which the hairs were deposited in a particular container and dedicated to the gods. 

    Women's hairstyles were relatively basic in the first century C.E., but they subsequently became so sophisticated that artificial hair and unique curls and braids put into towering constructions were necessary. 

    Both men and women, according to literary sources, use a lot of cosmetics. 

    Cleanliness was respected, and public baths were accessible to people from all walks of life. 

    Roman residents' children dressed up as grownups. 

    A toga with a purple band around the edge was worn by both boys and girls (toga praetexta). 

    Boys wore it until they were fourteen to sixteen years old, after which they switched to the citizen's toga (toga pura), while girls stopped wearing it once they reached puberty. 

    This garment was originally reserved for the children of aristocratic families, but it gradually became part of the uniform of all Ro man residents' children. 

    A bulla, a ball-shaped neck jewelry holding protection charms that was presented to Roman male infants as they were named, was also worn by them. 

    A particular headpiece seems to have been worn by both brides and vestal virgins, ladies whose lives were consecrated to the goddess Vesta. 

    It was made up of fake hair pads that alternated with thin bands. 

    This was hidden under a curtain. 

    The veil for brides was vivid orange, with a wreath of orange blooms and myrtle above it. 

    The link of veils and orange blossoms with weddings has persisted to the present day, and it is said to have originated in Roman tradition. 

    See also: 

    Textiles, Prehistoric; Toga.

    References And Further Reading: 

    Barber, E. J. W. Prehistoric Textiles. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.

    —. Women’s Work: The First 20,000 Years. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1994.

    Born, W., III. “Footwear of the Ancient Orient.” CIBA Review p. 1210.

    Sichel, Marion. Costume of the Classical World. London: Batsford Academic and Education, 1980.

    Tortora, Phyllis, and Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume. New York: Fairchild Publications, 1998.

    Mesopotamian and Egyptian Dress

    “Herodotus on Egypt.” Reprinted in The World of the Past. Vol. 1. Edited by J. Hawkes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.

    Houston, Mary G. Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Persian Costume. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 2002.

    Vogelsang-Eastwood, Gillian. Pharaonic Egyptian Clothing. Lei￾den, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1993.

    Minoan and Greek Dress

    Evans, A. “Scenes from Minoan Life.” In The World of the Past. Edited by J. Hawkes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.

    Evans, M. M. “Greek Dress.” In Ancient Greek Dress. Edited by M. Johnson. Chicago, Illinois: Argonaut, Inc., 1964.

    Faber, A. “Dress and Dress Materials in Greece and Rome.” CIBA Review no. 1 (n.d.): 297.

    Galt, C. “Veiled Ladies.” American Journal of Archeology 35, no. 4 (1931): 373.

    Geddes, A. G. “Rags and Riches: The Costume of Athenian Men in the Fifth Century.” Classical Quarterly 37, no. 2 (1987): 307–331.

    Houston, Mary G. Ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Costume. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, Inc., 2003.

    Etruscan and Roman Dress

    Bonfante, Larissa. Etruscan Dress. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

    Croom, Alexandra T. Roman Clothing and Fashion. Charleston, S.C.: Tempus Publishing Inc., 2000.

    Goldman, N. “Reconstructing Roman Clothing.” In The World of Roman Costume. Edited by J. L. Sebesta and L. Bonfante, 213–237. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

    McDaniel, W. B. “Roman Dinner Garments.” Classical Philology 20 (1925): 268 

    Rudd, Niall, trans. The Satires of Horace and Persius. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1973.

    Sebesta, Judith Lynn. “Symbolism in the Costume of the Roman Woman.” In The World of Roman Costume. Edited by J. L. Sebesta and L. Bonfante, 46–53. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

    —. “Tunica Ralla, Tunica Spissa.” In The World of Roman Costume. Edited by J. L. Sebesta and L. Bonfante, 65–76. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

    Sebesta, Judith Lynn, and Larissa Bonfante, eds. The World of Roman Costume. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

    Stone, S. “The Toga: From National to Ceremonial Costume.” In The World of Roman Costume. Edited by J. L. Sebesta and L. Bonfante, 13–45. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

    Wilson, Lillian May. The Roman Toga. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1924.

    —. The Clothing of the Ancient Romans. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1938.

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